What Are Dominant and Recessive Alleles?

Dominant and recessive alleles are how we describe the traits passed down through inheritance.  This occurs only when an organism sexually produces.  Each parent passes down one-half of the genetic information, and those combinations make up our specific genetic code.  That specific genetic code is the genotype.  What can be seen, or the physical differences… read more »

What Are Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms?

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms or SNPs are a single nucleotide change in an area of an organism’s DNA that is different in more than 1% of the population. SNPs occur in the DNA in 1 out of every 300 nucleotides. In the human genome, this means that there are at least 1 million SNPs in the… read more »

How Long Is A Generation?

We here people use the word generation a lot. There is the lost generation, generation X, generation Y, and the millennial generation. But in all of that, there is no defined sense of time as to who or when these terms apply. To genealogists, geneticists, and other researchers the word generation needs to be clearly… read more »

What is meiosis?

Meiosis is one of the two types of cell division. It only occurs during the production of sex cells, which are called gametes. One cell, after undergoing meiosis, produces four cells, which each have half the number of chromosomes as the dividing cell. These are haploid cells, as opposed to diploid cells, which have the… read more »

What is mitosis?

Mitosis is one of the two types of cell division. It is the way cells in the body reproduce and is what is responsible for all your cells. It is used to grow and to replace old cells. During the process of mitosis, all the cell’s contents are copied and the cell splits into two… read more »

What is a gene?

Gene is a heredity unit of life at a molecular level. It represents a specific set of nucleosides at a particular region/locus on the DNA[1,2]. Each trait that appears in an individual is representative of a particular gene or set of genes. Usually, the traits are represented by polygenes (multiple genes). Definition Genetic traits are… read more »

What are proteins and what do they do?

Proteins are an incredibly important and diverse group of molecules. They’re everywhere, and every living organism needs them to survive. In fact, if you were to take some cells from any organism and remove all the water from them, over 50% of the remaining weight would be protein. There are millions of different proteins, which… read more »

RNA vs DNA – the Differences

Nucleic acids such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are large biological molecules that are the foundation of life.  Our genetic code comes from DNA. Mutations or damage to DNA contributes to serious complications in genetic code. Function RNA translates the proteins that keep us alive. Not only are these molecules the basis for… read more »

DNA Polymerase

What is DNA polymerase? DNA Polymerase is the molecule responsible for making a copy of every cell’s genome. You may hear it referred to as a protein, an enzyme or a molecule; all of these are correct. In order for a cell to divide effectively, a copy needs to be made of all of the… read more »

Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA, or rDNA, is a strand of DNA that is artificially created by combining two separate pieces of DNA into one DNA molecule. Often, these two pieces of DNA come from two different organisms of two unique species. There are three methods to make rDNA. These are transformation, phage introduction and non-bacterial transformation. However,… read more »